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The following information is from the Certification Training Manual (pages 111-122) for the Structural Pesticide Applicator published around 1975.
Most of the information about equipment operation has not changed. But formulations, packaging, and dosages of pesticides may have. So always follow the instructions printed on the label of your pesticide container.
It might be said that the choice of equipment for pesticide applications is only as efficient as the knowledge of the person using that equipment. In other words, it is imperative that the pest control operator acquaint himself with the limitation of whatever device he chooses, so the ultimate in control can be accomplished. Ignoring this simple axiom causes, perhaps, more failure in the control of pests that any other factor.
The proper maintenance of pest control equipment is almost as important as making the correct choice of equipment for a particular job. Obviously, any amount of expertise is diminished by malfunctioning of equipment. It is not important if the details for repairing equipment is from memory or from a manual that is readily available, if a breakdown occurs. Homemade equipment or devices not considered as standard productive pesticide applicating equipment on the market still must conform to all applicable government regulations. Label instructions with regard to the application of a pesticide usually govern the type of equipment which is permitted to be used.
In order that the information in this publication may be more intelligible, it is sometimes necessary to use trade names of the product or equipment rather than complicated descriptive or chemical identifications. However, no endorsment of named products is intended nor is criticism implied of similar products which are not mentioned.
Pesticide applicators utilize many methods in the application of pesticides. Most of these have been developed as the result of years of studying the most effective methods. Some of the methods, however, may result in problems such as over application, not reaching the pest habitat while using a minimum amount of pesticide, and depositing unsafe residues. Proper techniques of application not only aid in effectiveness but also ensure workers' safety, public protection, and protection of the environment.
Competence in pest control includes basic kowledge of pests and pest problems, the ability to choose the right pesticide and equipment and equipment and a knowledge of proper methods of application. The proper technique of application probably plays a greater part in a successful job than all the others.
The applicator tends to take short cuts in application. He may use too much pressure in power spraying which creates voids in the spray pattern. He may fog when a careful needle point spray directed in the proper place would be more effective. Fancy fogging machines will not substitute for a thorough search of all cracks and hiding places and the application of just the right amount of pesticide with even a crude hand-held sprayer. A brief resume of the types of pesticide equipment and techniques of application is presented in the following section.
Dust formulations are pesticides in which the active ingredient is mixed with a substance which is usually light in weight (talc or clay). However, heavier weighted carriers are also essential for the proper distribution in certain situations. Many lightweight dusts are not acceptable in many areas since they may be a hazard to the applicator or vicinity in which the application is made. Ultimate drift of dispersed dust must be of considerable concern to the applicator. Precautionary measures in the use of dust equipment consist of the following:
|1.||Because dusts are usually exerted under some degees of pressure, all working parts of the equipment should be carefully examined. All literature provided by the manufacturer should be carefully read.|
|2.||Goggles and respirators should be included in the safety equipment.|
|3||The operator should be acquinted with operations and limitations of each piece of equipment he uses.|
|4.||Complete removal of dust remaing in the hopper and any extensions of the duster should be accomplished after the completion of each job.|
This is a device in which a plunger forces air through a cylinder into a small tube of varying length. Retraction of the plunger allows air and dust to mix in the cylinder and upon depression of the cylinder, repeats the above process. This device is suitable for crack, crevice, or void applications. Its capacity is usually greater than both of the previously mentioned dusters.
These dusters have a hopper for the dust which varies in capacity from 1 to 10 pounds. At the bottom of the hopper is an orifice which is adjustable in size and which allows the dust to fall into an air stream created by fins attached to a shaft. The shaft in turn is attached to a crank which is driven by hand power. A tube of varying length leads from the hopper to the final area of dispersion. This unit is typically used exteriorly or occasionally under the sub-areas of a house.
This is really a duplicatin of the plunger type duster but in the place of the fixed release tube a hose is substituted and a place to set the operator foot is provided. The plunger propels the dust through the tube, usually into a rodent burrow. In most cases this style of duster is used in exterior areas.
As their name implies, the following equipment either uses electric motors, gasoline engines, or compressed air as the power to run the mechanism which propels the dust. Where the hand type units usually are for small applications, power dusters obviously are used where large quantities of dust are to be dispersed. In the structural pest control industry, this type duster is usually restricted for use in large enclosed areas such as attics or sub-areas. However, where necessary and practical, exterior application is in order. Drift hazard and time of application are definite limiting factors in their use.
The most common example of this is the knapsack or backpack duster. However, there are also wheel-mounted units for large scale applications. In this type of duster, gasoline-operated engines accomplish the same effect as outlined above for the electric motor. Particularly with the knapsack or backpack, there is an extremely large area of mobility because the power unit is self-sustaining. Also, many of these units can be used with minor changes for both dust or liquid applications. The hopper in the case of a dust applicator has a capacity of 5 to 25 pounds.
There are many ways to classify equipment in this category. The present system is based on the method by which the pressure is originated to force the liquid from any designated holding container.
Low pressure-high volume is particularly valuable when spraying a dry, dusty sub-area. High pressure tends to ball up the top layer of dust or soft soil and move it around in a sweeping motion, without ever getting the soaking action that is desirable. Needless to say, but some servicemen will use higher pressures to speed up a job. A conscientious applicator will move about with a low pressure-high volume type of application and reach all areas.
With power spraying the source of power is either an electric or gasoline engine (Figure 9). This power can be transmitted to the pump by belts and pulleys, chains and sprockets, power take-off assemblies, or direct drive. In all cases, the liquid is ejected by the action of a pump through hoses or wands and finally through a nozzle or groups of nozzles. In this industry, the most commonly used type of pumps are the centrifugal, gear,and piston pumps. The selection of a sprayer must obviously be governed by the magnitude of the job.
Various types of formulations also play an important part in deciding the tank, pump, hose, regulator or nozzle to be used. The following section indicates the various ramifications of this selection by pointing out the various components of some of the systems now in use.
They should be of a capacity commensurate with the job. This seems, in most cases, to be of the 50 to 100 gallon capacity. There are tanks available as large as 500 gallons. The tank should be of either stainless steel, aluminum, fiber glass, plastic, or steel which is coated interiorly with a protective lining or is galvanized. The filling opening should be large, equipped with a strainer, and be of a size large enough to enable easy access for repair of the lining or any mechanical device within the tank. A secure hatch should cover the filling opening to avoid spillage of the formulation while in use. In order for the tank to be adaptable to all types of formulations, it should have a mechanical agitator or a properly placed return of the overflow from the regulator. A drain should be located at the lowest point of the tank and, preferably, should be easily accessible. The inlet to the pump should be of adequate capacity to supply the needs of the pump. An exterior plastic or glass liquid level gauge should be available to check the actual or remaining quantity of pesticide in the tank. All of the newer tanks and liners have been developed to overcome the serious problem of corrosion.
A pump is the most important part of the spraying system. It is imperative that it be chosen to satisfy the widest range of applications unless its use is for a single purpose. In most instances, the pump comes as an integral part of a complete unit in which the engineering requirements have all been satisfied. In other words, it has been specifically designed and manufactured by a company in this field. As one can imagine, there are many styles of pumps, some specifically for high gallonage delivery with little pressure, while others are styled for both small and large delivered quantities and high pressure. The most common type of pumps are discussed in the following section.
This is one of the most common pumps in existence (Figure 10). It has the ability to produce large volumes at high pressures; for example, 55 gallons per minute at 800 psi. However, it can also be regulated to deliver 2 gallons per minute at 150 psi. The only feature which makes this type pump undesirable is its pulsating action on hoses and regulators which causes them to wear at a rate faster than that with other type pumps.
This type of pump is best noted for its ability to deliver high volumes of liquid at low pressures. These are constructed to handle corrosive and abrasive materials.
This is a very popular pump in the industry because of its wide variety of uses (Figure 11). It has either nylon or rubber rollers and can produce a wide range of volumes and pressures.
|4.||Internal and External Gear Pumps|
This is a high pressure pump which produces limited volumes. Although all pumps diminish in efficiency from wear, this is more critical in this specific model.
This is a low volume pump. The main restriction is relative to using a material which will not affect the material of the diaphragm.
|6.||Flexible Impeder Pump|
A pump restricted to low pressures and limited volume.
This pump requires materials which afford some lubricating properties.
The object of any hose is to convey a liquid from the power source to the target. The material of which hoses are made varies considerably. Originally, most were constructed of natural rubber, but today, synthetic rubber, plastic or both are commonly used. As with so many other aspects of equipment in this industry, it is important to know what is expected of the hose relative to performance. For example, is it to carry only oil or water solutions. Are either of these damaging to the center core of the hose? Secondly, under what pressures are the liquids to be carried? Lastly, will the exterior cover withstand normal abrasion? Naturally, such things as capacity of delivery (interior dimension size and friction loss) and material compostition of the hose are important to know what specific gallonage delivery is required at the nozzle or group of nozzles. Much of this information is avaiable from the manufacturer, but it should be verified by experimenting with the equipment before it is used. One method of experimentation is to attach the hose to the pump outlet, set the pressure regulator to a specific pressure and attach a nozzle which in turn can be directed into a container. The quantity delivered per minute will determine the gallonage produced by the pump.
These are screens made of various materials, preferably stainless steel, which usually are 50 mesh or coarser. They are located at the filling opening, suction line to the pump and at the nozzle tip. Their presence is to prevent any foreign substance access to the spraying system. On the contrary, should they become clogged, they can vitally affect any portion of the delivery system. Rountine cleaning is imperative not only for the sprayers to function properly, but is extremely important if the calibrated delivery system is to be accurate.
There are many types of valves with some being extremely sophisticated. Their purpose is to shut off the flow of the liquid. Consequently, they are strategically located to be most effective in the advent of an emergency or in the normal function of the shutting off of the supply of liquid. Some have a time consuming screw type shutoff; others, either because of emergency or specific use, shut off instantly. Whichever type is used, frequent inspection to determine their proper functioning is important to guard against any leakage. This imspection is important with regard to maintaining pressures as well as preventing a potential hazard caused by unnecessary drippage.
As the name implies, this unit controls the pressure of the liquid being delivered to the nozzle. As with many other parts, there are numerous types of regulators. Spring tension which is controlled by a hand-adjusted screw mechanism exerts pressure on the liquid as it flows through the regulator on its way to the nozzle. They can be operated from zero pressure to as high as 800 psi. The indicator or gauge for pressure is located adjacent to or is a component part of the regulator and, as indicated, records the pressure as pounds per square inch. In addition to establishing the pressure, a provision exists for the excess or overflow to bypass the regulator and return to the tank. In many sprayers this return line is located near the bottom of the tank and can be either the primary or secondary measure in the agitation of the spray material in the tank.
This is a means by which the contents of a spray tank is mixed and agitated. The object is to keep the pesticide in continuous suspension so that it results in an even distribution of the material. In some formulations (wettable powders), mechanical is the only type of agitation that maintains suspension. In this method, a set of paddles is attached to a horizontally located shaft at the lower portion of the tank. Exteriorly, the shaft is connected to the power source. Bypass agitators are a frequently used method of agitation. This technique utilizes the overflow from the regulator to stir the contents of a tank. Obviously, if the nozzle or nozzles are shut off, this system is quite effective. However, if one is utilizing the full output of the pump, very little fluid is bypassing the regulator; consequently, there is very little agitation. Jet agitators are connected to the pressure side of the pump and a supply pipe placed horizontally at the bottom of the tank. The orifice size must be commensurate with the capacity of the pump so that the supply is adequate for it and the nozzle. In all forms of agitators, problems may arise due to the type of the formation used.
Specialized sprayers utilizing electric or gasoline power which are small and are usually utilized in homes or confined spaces are referred to as space sprayers. They are normally used more with oil formulations than water because of the smaller droplet size generated. The capacity is usually only a few gallons. The droplet size can be extremely small so that it floats in the air for a considerable time or large droplets which allow them to settle quickly.
Aerosol can dispersal of pesticides, although not new, has been very popular both with the public and pest control operators. Their range in capacity, from 6 ounces to 30 gallons, has made them very popular. The small sizes have push type release nozzles while those with a capacity of 5 pounds and up have a mechanical shut-off nozzle. They also come, particularly in the sizes less than 5 pounds, in disposable type containers. Their construction is very simple, consisting of a container in which designated amounts of pesticide and freon are placed. As long as the temperature in the vicinity of the area the material is to be dispersed is warm, the freon will propel the pesticide out of the orifice. The tube leading to the orifice is usually placed such that it reaches the bottom of the container. Aerosol application is generally confined to enclosed areas since the problem of drift is ever present.
As the name implies, this is an applicator for the application of granular formulations. Essentially, these are small hopper typre units with an orifice for the material to drop onto the crank operated spinning disc which throws the material over a 15 to 20 foot swath. Also, the same equipment is available in gasoline or power take-off drives which employ the same above principle only on a larger scale. Granules are ready for immediate application. Granular applicators, except in the case of weed control, are rarely used in the structural pest control industry.
Brush application quite often is recommended on the label for use in areas where a wet application is desired, but care is to be exercised in preventing the movement of a pesticide to non-target areas. This technique is usually confined to application along baseboards, window sills and door thresholds.
The only fumigant injection method which might be used by a structural pesticide applicator, other than these described in the section on Fumigation, is local spot injections for control of drywood termites and wood boring beetles. This technique utilizes a small hand-held CO2 pressurized applicator with a nozzle designed to penetrate into either the small emergence holes created by the insects or into specially drilled holes which open into the galleries. Usually some formulation of ethylene dibromide is used.
Spot treatment is application to limited areas on which insects are likely to occur, but which will not be in contact with food or utensils and will not ordinarily be in contact with workers. These areas may occur on floors, walls and bases or outsides of equipment. For this purpose a "spot" shall not exceed 2 square feet.
Crack and crevice treatment is the application of small amounts of insecticides into cracks and crevices in which insects hide or through which they may enter a building. Such openings commonly occur in expansion joints, between different elements of construction, and between equipment and floors. These openings may lead to voids such as hollow walls, equipment legs and bases, conduits motor housings or switch boxes.
Ultra-low volume application, as defined in agricultural application, is the spraying of undiluted pesticides in small volume, usually at rates of 1/2 gallon per acre or less. This term when used in structural applications has a somewhat different meaning. It is sometimes referred to as U.L.D. or ultra-low dosage.
The principle of U.L.V. application is the dispensing of a low volume of insecticides over a relatively large area. This is accomplished by breaking the insecticides down into tiny particles. Maintaining the particle size is very important.
This technique employs a long hollow, pointed probe connected to a spray rig and a shut-off valve at the top of the injector. It is useful in placing termiticides deep into the soil around the exterior foundation.
This technique is used for treating soil beneath slabs for the control of subterranean termites. This is one of the most useful tools developed for this type work. The sub-slab injector can be adapted to both 1/2-inch and 3/4-inch holes drilled in slab. It has some disadvantages. Among them is the inabiltity to always know exactly the direction of the flow beneath the slab.
|Ants - Inside||Manual spraying to interrupt trails.|
|Ants - Outside||Power-spraying - yard and crawl space.|
Power dusting can be used in crawl space and attics.
Throughly soak nest of mound building species.
Prepared baits can be used.
|Cockroaches - Food Areas||Crack and Crevice|
Specially equipped plastic tubes at nozzle end or aerosol crack and crevice applicators are preferred. Keep the tip moving approximately 1 foot per second.
Do not allow solution to remain on surface surrounding the crack. If dust is used be sure that all dust is brushed into craacks and crevices.
|Cockroaches - Non-food Areas||Manual spraying with fine mist nozzle for residual treatment. Pinpoint nozzle for nesting places. It may be necessary to power spray or power dust for Oriental and American cockroaches as they often infest crawl spaces and basements. It is important that the proper distance from nozzle to surface be maintained to prevent excessive fallout. Also the speed that the nozzle moves is important in order to ensure proper amount of solution being applied in the right place.|
|Scorpions||Power spraying with residual insecticide around
foundation and entries into house.|
Manual spraying or brush application around moldings, baseboards and plumbing.
|Bed Bugs||Manual spraying with fine fan spray for mattresses and pinpoint spray for cracks, moldings, bed springs, and other hiding places.|
|Spiders||Door, thresholds, window sills and other entries can be sprayed manually with residual pesticide. Power spraying with wettable powders or emulsions in yards.|
|Ticks||Power spraying or power dusting with residual insecticide in yards, crawl spaces and dog runs. Manual spraying with close attention to baseboards, window casings and under rugs. Sometimes necessary to treat upholstered furniture with fine spray.|
|Fleas - Inside||Manual spraying with fine spray around walls, rugs and upholstered furniture. Hand-held misting machines can be used but need only be directed downward. Fleas are seldom found high than 3 feet in living quarters.|
|Fleas - Outside||Power spraying in yards and dog runs|
Power spraying or power dusting in crawl spaces.
|Bees, Wasps, Hornets, and Yellow Jackets||Blowing of dust with either a good hand-cranked
duster or power duster directly into nest.|
Some baits are effective against yellow jackets.
|Clother Moths,Carpet Beetles and Carpet Moths||Manual spraying with coarse, wet spray pattern. Residual pesticides with oil or water emulsions can be used. Do not soak rugs with oil-based sprays. Sufficient pressure and volume must be used to drive solution into fiber of rugs and upholstery to reach infestation. Pay special attention to areas next to walls.|
|Stored Food Pests||Manual spraying with residual insecticide in cabinets and shelves. Fine pinpoint spray in cracks. Clean up after drying or put shelf paper down before replacing utensils. Fogging or U.L.V. can be used in storage areas or warehouses. If food is present, use contact insecticides only, avoid contamination.|
|Flies||Space Fogging with knock down spray will help in
diminishing the adult population but does not figure as
effective measure of control.|
Power spraying of harborages will prevent breeding to some extent. Fly strips can be used in patios or Bar-B-Que areas. Larvacides applied to infested areas around dairies, chickens or horses.
Sanitation is the key to fly control.
|Sow Bugs, Pill Bugs, Springtails, Earwigs, Crickets, Millipedes and Centipedes||Power spraying of all harborages with low pressure-high volume.|
|Silverfish||Manuel spraying with pinpoint pattern applied to
cracks, behind doors, molding with residual insecticide.|
Power dusting of attics may be necessary.
|Clover Mites||Power spray a band around the exterior of house
extending into the yard at least 10 feet and up the
walls to window height.|
Manual spray inside, around edges of windows and doors.
|Snails and Slugs||Baits scattered on moist ground. Remove dead snails and repeat baiting until control ground is established.|
|Subterranean Termites in Crawl Space||Power spraying with low pressure-high volume,
using persistant termiticide solution. Apply at rate of
1 gallon per 10 square feet of soil area. Apply 2 gallons
per 5 lineal feet of foundation walls. If foundation is
over 15 to 18 inches deep, apply 4 gallons per 5 lineal
Use subsoil injector outside foundation. Do not apply below the top of the footing.
|Subterranean Termites in Slab Construction||Sub-slab injection in areas where termites appear.|
|Drywood Termites (Localized Infestation)||Inject liquid fumigant in emergence holes or holes drilled to allow entry into galleries.|
|Drywood Termites (General Infestation Extending into Walls)||Complete fumigation with lethal fumigant (see section on Fumigation).|
|Wood Boring Beetle (Localized Infestation)||Inject liquid fumigant into emergence holes. Some beetles can be controlled by spraying surface wood to a point of runoff. This may require repeated applications.|
|carpenter Ants||Locate the nest and manually treat with residual insecticide.|
Brooks, Joe E. and Peck, Thomas D. 1969. Community Pest and Related Vector Control. Pest Control Operators of California.
Truman, Lee C. and Butts, William L. 1967. Scientific Guide to Pest Control Operations
Dow Chemical Company. 1966. How to Fumigate Buildings with Dow Methyl Bromide.
Pest Control Magazine. 1971. Refinements in U.L.V. Vol. 41-No.8.